· A hypothesis is an educated guess/prediction about what will happen based on what you already know and what you have already learned from your research. It must be worded so that it is “testable.” The hypothesis can be written as an “If…, then….” statement, such as “If all light is blocked from a plant for two weeks, then the plant will die.”
· An independent variable is the factor in an experiment that is altered by the experimenter. The independent variable is purposely changed or manipulated.
· A dependent variable is the factor in an experiment that changes as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable.
· The constants in an experiment are those things that are purposefully kept the same throughout the experiment.
· A scientific prediction is a forecast about what may happen in some future situation. It is based on the application of factual information and principles and recognition of trends and patterns.
· An inference is a tentative explanation based on background knowledge and available data.
· A conclusion is a summary statement based on the results of an investigation. Scientific conclusions are based on verifiable observations (science is empirical).
· A classification key is an important tool used to help identify objects and organisms. It consists of a branching set of choices organized in levels, with most levels of the key having two choices. Each level provides more specific descriptors, eventually leading to identification.
· Estimation is a useful tool for making approximate measures and giving general descriptions. In order to make reliable estimates, one must have experience using the particular unit.
· When conducting experiments, data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and communicated using proper graphical representations and metric measurements. Systematic investigations require organized reporting of data. The way the data are displayed can make it easier to see important patterns, trends, and relationships. Bar graphs, line graphs, charts and tables are useful tools for reporting discrete data and continuous data, respectively.
· Types of Measurement-
· Length- millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer
· Mass- gram, kilogram
· Volume- milliliters, liters
· Temperature- Degrees Celsius
· Elasped Time
· Instruments of Measurement- centimeter ruler, meter stick, balance, stop watch, thermometer, graduated cylinder